The Seven Summits Challenge
The Seven Summits challenge was first completed by American Dick Bass in 1985 and involves climbing the highest peaks on all 7 continents including… Kilimanjaro (Africa), Elbrus (Europe), Aconcagua (S. America), Kosciuszko (Australia), Denali (N. America), Vinson (Antarctica) & Everest (Asia).
The Seven Summits challenge is split between the ‘Bass’ and ‘Morrow’ list – The difference between the two lists rests on a difference of opinion on what constitutes the continent of Australia. Some folks attempt the Bass list, others the Messner list and some complete both. The world record for the fastest Seven Summits challenge was once held by Irishman Ian McKeever in 2009 at 156 days, while the first person in the world to have completed the Seven Summits including descent to sea level was Noel Hanna. In recent years, as peaks become ever more accessible, further records are appearing and being broken.
The list of climbers from Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland who have completed the ‘Bass’ Seven Summits list is as follows…
- Pat Falvey (39 & 47) from Co. Cork in 1997 & 2005
- Clare O’Leary (34) from Co. Cork in 2005
- Ian McKeever (37) from Co. Wicklow in 2007
- Vivian Rigney (39) from Co. Dublin in 2010
- Noel Hanna (42) from Co. Down in 2010
- Neill Elliott (42) from Co. Fermanagh in 2015
- Mary Scannell (41) from Co. Kerry in 2016
- Terry Kelleher (56) from Co. Dublin in 2017
To the best of my knowledge, the list of climbers from Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland who have completed the ‘Messner’ Seven Summits list is as follows…
- Ian McKeever from Co. Wicklow
- Noel Hanna from Co. Down
- Vivian Rigney from Co. Dublin
- Bill Hanlon from Co. Wexford
- Mary Scannell from Co. Kerry
If you have any new information or wish to correct any existing information, please feel free to contact me as I am always excited to receive new stats and more accurate inputs.
Seven Summits Costs
The cost of completing the Seven Summits challenge varies depending on your choices and when it was attempted. Our Seven Summits project cost approximately €150,000 per person up to and including the last Everest attempt in 2015.
The most costly expeditions are Antarctica and Everest. The disaster in 2014 meant a retry in 2015 (which ended after 25 days due to the earthquake and avalanche), hence the combined Everest costs exceeded €70,000. Training and equipment over the years also added significantly to overall costs. 90% or more of the costs were self-funded, with less than 10% coming from local donors.
Ireland & Everest
Note: Collating Everest stats for Ireland is tricky because ‘Ireland’ can include climbers born in Republic of Ireland (Irish Citizens) or Northern Ireland (Irish or British Citizens), or residents of Republic of Ireland or Northern Ireland at the time of their climb, or declaring their citizenship as Irish when registering to climb Everest. Picking those groups out of a citizenship-based data set is something of a pain, but to tell the full story of ‘Ireland & Everest’ you really need to dive down that rabbit hole. Hence for the purpose of this analysis I list successful Irish attempts to include all of the groups mentioned above. This is not a political statement, merely a method of identifying those who I believe should be included in this assessment. Thank you to the great folks who maintain and manage the Himalayan Database for enabling access to the raw data used for this assessment. The work of the late Elizabeth Hawley & her team is somewhat priceless.
By May 2018, Everest had been successfully climbed 59 times by 49 different Irish climbers. In total, there has been 120 attempts to climb the mountain by 86 Irish climbers. The headline stats are as follows…
- Everest has been climbed 59 times by 49 Irish climbers (7 women, 42 men) since the first Irish success in 1993.
- Irish success rate on Everest is 49% (59/120), while Irish fatality rate on Everest is 0.017% (2/120).
- The first climber from Ireland to reach the summit of Everest was Dawson Stelfox from Antrim in 1993.
- The most summits is Noel Hanna (8) – Noel guides for the Russian team ‘Seven Summits Club’.
- Pat Falvey, Lynne Hanna & Rob Smith have all summited Everest twice – once from each side.
- The youngest Irish born person to reach the summit was Rob Mortell from Limerick (aged 26) in 2016.
- The oldest Irish born person to reach the summit of Everest was Martin Byrne from Offaly (aged 58) in 2012.
- The average age of successful Irish climbers on Everest is 40-41 years.
- The earliest summit date by an Irish climber is 7th May 2010 by Domhnall O’Dochertaigh.
- The latest summit date by an Irish climber is 5th June 2005 by Grania Willis.
- The earliest summit time by an Irish climber is 01:10am on 21st May 2011 by Noel Hanna.
- The latest summit time by an Irish climber is 11:36am on 22nd May 2007 by Bill Hanlon.
- Two Irish born climbers died while climbing Everest – Dr. Sean Egan in 2005 & John Delaney in 2011.
- Noel & Lynne Hanna hold the world record for the 1st married couple to summit together from both sides (2009 & 2016).
- Charles Howard-Bury from Westmeath lead the 1st Reconnaissance Expedition to Everest in 1921 which included George Mallory.
- Edmund Hillary’s grandmother came from the village of Clondra in Longford. His other grandparents were from Yorkshire in England.
- R.W.G. Hingston from Passage West in Cork was medical officer & naturalist to the 1924 Everest expedition.
- The worst disasters in the history of the Everest took place in 2014 (Avalanche) and 2015 (Earthquake) – The two years I attempted to climb it.
- Ireland has the 17th most summits for any country in the world, tied with Austria and ahead of Norway, Poland & Mexico.
An Everest expedition typically lasts 60 days, with the first 20 days spent climbing 6000m peaks to adapt to the altitude, and slowly moving towards Base Camp. The next 20 days are spent making progressive advances up the mountain and back to base camp to adapt to the higher altitudes. Summit windows typically appear from 2nd week of May onward. The window requires the jet stream to move away from the summit of the mountain and might be 48 hours or a few days long. Normally the summit window closes by the start of the final week of May.
The cost of an Everest expedition can range from €25k on the budget end to €80k on the higher end. The average cost of joining a well equipped, experienced and well supported team is approximately €35-45k. Those paying under €30k should do their homework carefully to ensure they are sufficiently experienced and that the support provided is sufficient.
The first team from Ireland to successfully climb Everest in 1993 took the North Ridge (1960 Chinese route), and included: Dawson Stelfox (Leader); Frank Nugent (Deputy Leader); Dermot Somers; Robbie Fenlon; Mike Barry; Richard O’Neill-Dean; Mick Murphy and Tony Burke. The full list of all successful Irish summits is shown below.
Irish Successes on Everest
|#||Climber Name||Age||Comes From||Address At||Route Taken||Summit Date||Summit Time||Year|
|1||Dawson Stelfox **||35||Antrim||Antrim||North (Tibet)||27/05/1993||10:07||1993|
|2||Pat Falvey *||37||Cork||Cork||North (Tibet)||27/05/1995||09:00||1995|
|3||Mick Murphy *||44||Cork||Cork||South (Nepal)||22/05/2003||10:00||2003|
|4||Gerard McDonnell *||32||Limerick||USA||South (Nepal)||22/05/2003||11:10||2003|
|5||Terence Bannon **||35||Down||Down||North (Tibet)||31/05/2003||08:00||2003|
|6||Pat Falvey *||46||Cork||Kerry||South (Nepal)||18/05/2004||06:45||2004|
|7||Clare O'Leary *||33||Cork||Cork||South (Nepal)||18/05/2004||06:45||2004|
|8||Samantha O'Carroll *||27||Cork||Cork||South (Nepal)||27/05/2004||10:20||2004|
|9||Humphrey Murphy *||41||Dublin||Donegal||North (Tibet)||30/05/2005||07:10||2005|
|10||Grania Willis *||49||Dublin||Dublin||North (Tibet)||05/06/2005||06:00||2005|
|11||Fergal Corrigan **||31||Fermanagh||Tyrone||North (Tibet)||17/05/2006||06:40||2006|
|12||Neill Elliot **||33||Fermanagh||Fermanagh||North (Tibet)||17/05/2006||06:40||2006|
|13||Raymond Hassard **||33||Fermanagh||Fermanagh||North (Tibet)||17/05/2006||06:40||2006|
|14||Noel Hanna **||39||Down||Down||North (Tibet)||21/05/2006||07:35||2006|
|15||Ian McKeever *||37||Wicklow||Wicklow||North (Tibet)||16/05/2007||08:00||2007|
|16||Tom Lehane *||49||Cork||England||South (Nepal)||17/05/2007||07:30||2007|
|17||Hannah Shields **||42||Derry||Derry||North (Tibet)||19/05/2007||07:00||2007|
|18||Bill Hanlon *||52||Wexford||Canada||South (Nepal)||22/05/2007||11:36||2007|
|19||Nigel Hart **||41||Antrim||Antrim||South (Nepal)||23/05/2007||06:29||2007|
|20||Roger McMorrow **||31||Antrim||Dublin||South (Nepal)||24/05/2007||07:55||2007|
|21||Michael O'Dwyer *||32||Dublin||Dublin||South (Nepal)||24/05/2007||07:55||2007|
|22||John Dowd *||53||Kerry||Kerry||South (Nepal)||21/05/2008||07:45||2008|
|23||Anselm Murphy ***||24||London-Irish||England||South (Nepal)||21/05/2008||10:30||2008|
|24||Ian Taylor *||29||Kildare||Kildare||South (Nepal)||23/05/2008||06:10||2008|
|25||Noel Hanna **||42||Down||Down||South (Nepal)||21/05/2009||04:00||2009|
|26||Lynne Hanna **||47||Down||Down||South (Nepal)||21/05/2009||04:00||2009|
|27||Christopher Jones ***||45||Unknown||Galway||South (Nepal)||21/05/2009||07:40||2009|
|28||Domhnall O'Dochartaigh ***||35||Unknown||Canada||South (Nepal)||07/05/2010||06:00||2010|
|29||James Haydock ****||48||Lancashire||Dublin||South (Nepal)||22/05/2010||06:00||2010|
|30||Noel Hanna **||43||Down||Down||South (Nepal)||23/05/2010||03:15||2010|
|31||Vivian Rigney *||39||Dublin||USA||South (Nepal)||23/05/2010||09:00||2010|
|32||Fergus White *||37||Dublin||Cork||South (Nepal)||23/05/2010||06:45||2010|
|33||Geoffrey Chambers **||46||Armagh||Armagh||South (Nepal)||16/05/2011||06:15||2011|
|34||Basil Geoghegan *||43||Dublin||Dublin||South (Nepal)||19/05/2011||07:25||2011|
|35||Gavin Bate ****||44||Kent||Down||South (Nepal)||20/05/2011||10:00||2011|
|36||Noel Hanna **||44||Down||Down||North (Tibet)||21/05/2011||01:10||2011|
|37||Mark Quinn *||27||Limerick||Limerick||North (Tibet)||21/05/2011||05:45||2011|
|38||Martin Byrne *||58||Offaly||Tipperary||North (Tibet)||26/05/2011||11:30||2011|
|39||Noel Hanna **||45||Down||Down||North (Tibet)||20/05/2012||08:00||2012|
|40||Cian O'Brolchain *||32||Dublin||Dublin||South (Nepal)||25/05/2012||06:00||2012|
|41||Albert Connaughton *||49||Dublin||Dublin||South (Nepal)||25/05/2012||07:00||2012|
|42||Peter O'Connell *||29||Galway||Galway||South (Nepal)||13/05/2013||06:30||2013|
|43||Jason Black *||42||Donegal||Donegal||North (Tibet)||19/05/2013||07:00||2013|
|44||Noel Hanna **||46||Down||Down||North (Tibet)||20/05/2013||05:30||2013|
|45||Brian Meskell *||33||Limerick||Limerick||North (Tibet)||22/05/2013||06:00||2013|
|46||Kieran Lally *||54||Mayo||Dublin||South (Nepal)||23/05/2013||05:30||2013|
|47||Noel Hanna **||47||Down||Down||North (Tibet)||24/05/2014||06:30||2014|
|48||Derek Mahon *||52||Dublin||Dublin||North (Tibet)||24/05/2014||06:30||2014|
|49||Rob Smith **||43||Tyrone||Scotland||North (Tibet)||25/05/2014||08:00||2014|
|50||Mary Scannell *||41||Kerry||England||South (Nepal)||13/05/2016||09:45||2016|
|51||Noel Hanna **||49||Down||Down||North (Tibet)||21/05/2016||06:45||2016|
|52||Lynne Hanna **||54||Down||Down||North (Tibet)||21/05/2016||06:45||2016|
|53||Robert Mortell *||26||Limerick||Limerick||North (Tibet)||23/05/2016||08:45||2016|
|54||John Burke *||38||Clare||Clare||South (Nepal)||16/05/2017||09:30||2017|
|55||Terry Kelleher *||56||Dublin||Dublin||South (Nepal)||22/05/2017||07:30||2017|
|56||Rob Smith **||46||Tyrone||Scotland||South (Nepal)||22/05/2017||04:40||2017|
|57||Rory McHugh *||40||Dublin||England||South (Nepal)||26/05/2017||11:00||2017|
|58||Louise McEvoy *||Dublin||USA||South (Nepal)||16/05/2018||TBC||2018|
|59||Adrian McNally *||41||Meath||Meath||South (Nepal)||19/05/2018||TBC||2018|
Irish Successes (1993-2017) - Climber / Home / Year / Route
(Blue = South via Nepal, Grey = North via Tibet)
Irish Successes on Everest - By County
Above list, diagram & map captures the 59 successful ascents of Everest by Irish climbers (combination of climbers from Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland or overseas Irish Citizens or climbers with Irish residency) from 1993 to 2018. This list has been researched using data from the Himalayan Database along with independent research to produce the first fully complete record of the Irish on Everest. The map above is restricted to just those from Irish counties. Please contact Paul with any corrections/updates and please cite this website when using stats or info sourced here.
Irish Successes on Everest (1993-2017) - County Breakdown
It is probably no surprise that Dublin is top of the list, since 1.4m of the entire population of the island (6.5m) resides in County Dublin. However it may be a surprise that Down is right on its tail. This is primarily due to to the climbing prowess of the Hanna household, with Johannesburg based Noel and Lynne jointly smashing records and pushing Down up the list. Cork, Limerick and Antrim make up the remainder of the top 5. In total, 19 counties across the island of Ireland can claim 1 or more summits of Everest.
Irish Successes on Everest (1993-2017) - Route Selection
The South side (via Nepal) is the most popular route taken by Irish climbers who reached the summit. Since 2011, there has been a distinct shift of some to the North side (via Tibet), which was expected to increase following the introduction of restrictions and the difficulties on the Nepal side in 2014 & 2015. However this did not materialise in 2017, and all Irish attempts in 2018 were from the South (Nepal) side.
Irish Successes on Everest (1993-2017) - Prior 8000m Climbs?
It is often said that the best preparation for a successful Everest expedition, is to climb one of the other fourteen 8000m peaks to gain extreme altitude experience. While some climbers attempt or climb one or more of these peaks ahead of Everest, the statistics show that 64% of all successful Irish climbers had never climbed or attempted an 8000m peak prior to their first Everest expedition. In addition, 58% of successful Irish climbers on Everest had never climbed a Himalayan peak > 7000m prior to their first Everest success. Whatever your believes are on prior 8000m experience, the Irish statistics would suggest that it is definitely not a prerequisite to success.
There are many ways to skin a cat, and gaining skill and capability is as possible in the Alps or Alaska as it is in the Himalayas. While experience at extreme altitude is without doubt a benefit which should be taken if possible, many have climbed Everest with just prior 6000-7000m peak experience. Some have great physiology which allows them to endure more successfully at higher altitudes, some have great luck which prevented them from getting into trouble. The magic formula perhaps is a combination of large skill base, discipline, prior long expedition experience, ability to suffer for long periods without complaining and ability to follow orders while reading your environment quickly and effectively. Each successful climber will find their own magic formula.
Irish Attempts on Everest - Climber / Year / Summit / Altitude
Up to end of 2017, there had been 116 Irish attempts on Everest over the years by 84 climbers. While 57 of those 116 attempts proved successful, it is fascinating to see how close many others came to the summit. In particular it is fascinating to see how many climbers had to turn around above 8000m. This must have been a very difficult decision for each to make, and anyone who has been to extreme altitude will acknowledge the incredible strength and effort it takes to get that far. It is also remarkable to note how many people did not make it on the first attempt. Gavin Bate reached the summit on his 5th attempt. Pat Falvey had two successes, but also turned around on two attempts, once with just 50 meters from the summit. Martin Byrne finally made it on his 4th expedition. Others were not so lucky but their persistence is incredibly noteworthy, including Patricia McGuirk who made three attempts, getting to 8650m on the third time, but not reaching the summit. It is also interesting to see how high each of the 1993 team managed to reach on that first expedition. Dawson rightly gets the plaudits for reaching the summit, but many of his teammates almost made it too. Interestingly only one of that team went back to try again – Mick Murphy would succeed on the second attempt 10 years later in 2003.
(Red colour denotes climbers who died during the attempt)
Irish Attempts on Everest - Listing
|#||Name||Age||Comes From...||Address In...||Reached||Summit||Year|
|1||Meryon Bridges||31||England||Cork||No Data||No||1976|
|6||Richard O'Neill-Dean||39||Ireland||New Zealand||8000||No||1993|
|12||Sean Smith||33||Ireland||England||No Data||No||1995|
|16||Marcella Dunne||42||Dublin||Dublin||No Data||No||1999|
|18||Mick Long||40||Kerry||Kerry||No Data||No||2001|
|38||Mark Carr||52||Down||Down||No Data||No||2004|
|39||Bridget Rossiter-O'Flynn||43||Wexford||Wexford||No Data||No||2004|
|45||Sean Egan (D)||63||Clare||Canada||6000||No||2005|
|89||John Delaney (D)||41||Kildare||Kildare||8800||No||2011|
D = Denotes climbers who died during the attempt
Total Everest Summits
According to Everest blogger Alan Arnette, Everest had been successfully climbed 8306 times by 4833 people since the first successful ascent in 1953. The summit of Everest straddles the border between Nepal and Tibet at an altitude of 29,035ft or 8848m. The mountain was initially named Peak XV before being renamed in 1856 after George Everest, a retired British Surveyor General who never actually saw the peak. The graphic below shows the increase in summit numbers over the years, with notable reduction in 2014 following the avalanche in the Ice Fall and effective shutdown of Nepal side, along with absence of 2015 stats due to the Nepal Earthquake & avalanche at Base Camp which occurred midway through the climbing season and led to the full shutdown of the mountain for the first time in its climbing history.
Everest Fatalities by Altitude / Year
Over the years there has been in the region of 290 fatalities on Everest for a range of reasons and across a wide range of altitudes. The info-graphic below shows the correlation of fatalities per year with the altitudes at which they were reported to have happened. The two obvious spikes are 2014 and 2015 where large scale fatalities occurred in the icefall just above base camp in 2014 and at base camp during the earthquake of 2015. The next largest year of fatalities was the infamous 1996 ‘Into Thin Air’ disaster which is well documented in book and film. 92 of the fatalities recorded in the Himalayan Database occurred after the climbers had reached the summit.
Everest Summits by Country
The info-graphic below shows the extent of summits by each country (recorded by citizenship) from 1953 to 2017. Nepal leads the way (which is no surprise since the vast majority of guides and high altitude workers are Nepalese Sherpa), while USA, China, UK and India make up the rest of the top 5 countries with climbers who have reached the top of Everest over the years. Ireland punches well above its weight, and even though it appears in 21st position in the overall picture below, if you look at it from an ‘Island’ perspective, Ireland is actually in joint 17th position with Austria. Not bad for a small island of 6.5m people.
Vinson Massif & Ireland
Vinson Massif is the highest mountain of Antarctica, lying in the Sentinel Range of the Ellsworth Mountains, which stand above the Ronnie Ice Shelf near the base of the Antarctic Peninsula. The mountain was first discovered in 1958 and first climbed in 1966. The mountain was named in 2006 after Carl Vinson – US Congressman from the state of Georgia and one of the main supporters of Antarctic research.
The first Irish born person to climb Vinson Massif was Sheila Dyson in 1997. Sheila was born and raised in Dublin and like many of her generation she emigrated to UK in her early 20’s to find work. Her summit of Vinson Massif came two weeks before Pat Falvey became the first Irish male to complete the climb. Pat would return to Antarctica a decade later, firstly to lead the 1st Irish team climb of Vinson Massif with Clare O’Leary and then to lead the 1st Irish team to reach the South Pole in 2006. The following Irish persons have climbed Vinson Massif:
- Sheila Dyson – Dublin – 1997
- Pat Falvey – Cork – 1997 & 2005
- Clare O’Leary – Cork – 2005
- Michael Lanigan – 2005
- Ian McKeever – Wicklow – 2007
- Noel Hanna – Down – 2009
- Bill Hanlon – Wexford – 2009
- Vivian Rigney – Dublin – 2009
- Terry Kelleher – Dublin – 2010
- Albert Connaughton – Dublin – 2010
- Mary Scannell – Kerry – 2011
- Senan Foley – Cork – 2011
- Paul Holland – Galway – 2013
- Paul Devaney – Longford – 2014
- Neill Elliott – Fermanagh – 2015
- Kevin Trundle – Cork – 2015
It is difficult to be exact about how many have people have climbed Vinson, or how many climbers from Ireland have reached the summit. The statistics I have collected (including records from Union Glacier in Antarctica and personal research) on Irish ascents of Vinson Massif is shown above.
Antarctica & Ireland
Ernest Shackelton – Born in Ballytore Co. Kildare in 1874 to a Quaker family, the young Ernest joined the merchant Navy and worked his way up through the ranks. Shackleton’s first experience of the Antarctic was in 1902 as a member of Scott’s ‘Discovery’ Expedition when he first met his fellow countryman Tom Crean. Shackleton returned to Antarctica in 1907 with his own expedition when he got within 97 miles of the Pole, 360 miles closer than anyone previously. After Amundsen reached the pole, Shackleton was determined to be the first to cross the continent and returned with the ill-fated Endurance in 1914 to disaster and an Epic escape to South Georgia. Shackleton could not get the Antarctic out of his blood and returned once more in 1922 but only made it to South Georgia where he died and is buried.
Tom Crean – Born just outside Annascaul in Kerry in 1877. At the age of 15 he ran away and joined the Navy as a Boy 2nd Class. Crean played a major role in three of the greatest Antarctic expeditions. On his second trip to the Antarctic in 1911, Crean was a member of the tragic Scott Expedition narrowly beaten in the race to the South Pole by the Norwegian Amundsen. Crean retrieved the bodies of Scott’s polar party, frozen only 11 miles from a food depot. In 1914 Crean was back in the Antarctic for a third time, on this occasion with an old friend Ernest Shackleton on the ill-fated Endurance expedition. He was instrumental in the rescue mission and was one of three (Shackelton, Worsley being the others) who reached the whaling station in South Georgia to raise the alarm and spark the rescue of all hands from the doomed Endurance. On returning home, Crean resumed naval duties. On 15 December 1916 he was promoted to the rank of warrant officer (as a boatswain), in recognition of his service on the Endurance,and was awarded his third Polar Medal. On 5 September 1917 Crean married Ellen Herlihy of Annascaul in Co. Kerry. He retired from the Navy on medical grounds on 24 March 1920. He and Ellen opened a small public house in Annascaul, which he called The South Pole Inn. The couple had three daughters, Mary, Kate, and Eileen, although Kate died when she was four years old. His legend, statue and The South Pole Inn pub can still be found in Annascaul.
Tim McCarthy – McCarthy was born on 15 July 1888 in Kinsale, Ireland. He signed on the Endurance as an able seaman, and participated fully in the dangers and privations of the Weddell Sea, particularly after the Endurance sank and the ship’s company and shore party were marooned on a nearby ice floe. He was one of the party of 6 who organised the rescue via the epic boat journey to South Georgia. On his return home, McCarthy (who was not an Irish Nationalist and identified himself with the British Empire) found his country fighting World War I. He joined the Royal Navy Reserve as a leading seaman. In these duties he was assigned to man a deck gun on the S.S. Narragansett, an oil tanker. On 16 March 1917, this vessel was torpedoed and sunk with all hands in the Western Approaches. McCarthy, aged 28, was the first member of the Weddell Sea party of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition to die.
Edward Bansfield – Born in Cork in 1783. Bansfield was the first European to sight Antarctica. As a merchant seaman, he was pressed into the British Navy and took part in the blockade of Brest (1813-14) during the Napoleonic Wars. By 1815 he had risen to be a master, the highest rank available to him. From 1829 to 1821 he explored and charted the South Shetland Islands (as named by him). In 1819 he discovered Trinity Land, the north-western tip of the Antarctic peninsula. Bransfield Island, Bransfield Straight, Bransfield Rocks and Mount Bransfield are named after him.
Francis Crozier – Born in Banbridge, Co. Down in 1796. Crozier joined the British Navy in 1810. He made three Arctic voyages with Parry between 1821 and 1827. He explored the Antarctic as second in command to Ross from 1839 to 1843 and took over command of Franklin’s Arctic expedition in 1847 when Franklin died. Cape Crozier on King William Island, Canada, is named after him.
Francis McClintock – Born in Dundalk in 1819. McClintock entered the British Navy in 1831 and between 1848 and 1852 he made several Arctic voyages – his first as captain in 1852. He made a number of long journeys by sledge across the Arctic and developed methods that were widely adopted. In 1859 McClintok found the remains of Franklin’s expedition and the grave of Crozier and his men. Mount McClintok in Antarctica is called after him.